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We have looked at a number of civilizations beginning with the Sumerians and ending with the Arabs in the region we call the Middle East, covering Rome and Greece, Meso-America and South America, and touching on modernity in Africa.

We have (as a species) grown from the primitive lifestyles of the Sumerians, yet we have also regressed to the engagement with genocide against our perceived enemies. 

How does a civilization become a civilization or empire?  What are the characteristics of a civilization ?  Are there any civilizations or cultures who acted in a ‘nice, kind, tolerant, open’ manner?  What happens to anyone who is residing on the land before the other civilization takes over?

Of all the civilizations to have existed (not just the ones we have looked at but you may have some awareness of others), what distinguishes them, or are they all the same?  What is the purpose of a civilization (if any)?  What would we consider to be an ideal civilization? 

Having considered what the ideal is, consider all that have existed, and what culture or civilization comes closest – what is it about that civilization or culture that makes it more ideal.

If it is so ideal, do you think it is a reasonable idea to integrate every culture together – will that make it better?

What then does the future hold for the world?  What direction are we headed?

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